Thursday, September 12, 2019

US Bond Yields Made in Germany

Another round of central bank easing is underway. So why are bond yields rising?

The 10-year US Treasury bond yield rose from a recent low of 1.47% on 9/4 to 1.72% on Tuesday (Fig. 1). The record low was 1.37%, hit on 7/8/16 just after the Brits voted to leave the European Union (EU). The risks of a no-deal Brexit have eased in recent days, though it still could happen next month. A hard Brexit could cause the bond yield to retest its recent low.

In any event, the main reason that the US bond yield has moved higher in recent days has more to do with Germany than the UK. The 10-year German government bond yield has risen from a recent record low of -0.71% on 8/30 to -0.54% Tuesday. Reuter’s reported: “Germany’s 30-year government bond yield briefly rose into positive territory on Tuesday for the first time in over a month, lifted by expectations for fiscal stimulus and caution over the scale of stimulus the European Central Bank might deliver this week.”

During a parliamentary budget debate on Tuesday, Germany’s Finance Minister Olaf Scholz said that Germany can counter a possible recession with a big stimulus package. On Monday, Reuters reported that Germany was considering creating a “shadow budget” to boost public investment above and beyond limits set by its national debt rules, sparking a bond sell-off.

European Central Bank (ECB) President Mario Draghi has been lobbying for fiscal policy to turn more stimulative to support the ECB’s ultra-easy monetary policies. Germany has resisted doing so and even questioned whether the ECB’s asset purchase program could legally buy sovereign bonds. Germany’s fiscal and monetary conservatives might be starting to waver as a result of Germany’s intensifying manufacturing recession, with factory orders and production down 5.6% and 4.8% y/y through July (Fig. 2).

Last year, when there was widespread bearishness in the bond market, with some predicting that the US yield would rise from 3% to 4%-5%, I observed that the US bond yield might be “tethered” to the comparable German and Japanese yields, which were barely above zero. This year, both have dropped solidly below zero.

During the Q&A portion of his 7/25 press conference, Draghi pleaded for more fiscal stimulus, especially from Germany:

“What’s hitting the manufacturing sector in Germany and [elsewhere in Europe is] an idiosyncratic shock. Here what becomes really very important is fiscal policy. [T]he mildly expansionary fiscal policy is supporting activity in the euro area. But if there were to be a significant worsening in the Eurozone economy, it’s unquestionable that fiscal policy … becomes of the essence. … I started making this point way back in 2014 in a Jackson Hole speech: monetary policy has done a lot to support the euro area … but if we continue with this deteriorating outlook, fiscal policy will become of the essence.”

Thursday, September 5, 2019

From FOMO to FONIR

I visited with our accounts in Atlanta and Chattanooga recently. They seemed relatively calm. Most of them believe that the US economy can continue to grow for the foreseeable future. So they aren’t freaking out about the recent inversion of the yield curve. However, they are somewhat anxious about the prospect of negative interest rates in the US, though they think it is a remote possibility. Consider the following:

(1) US bond yields stand out. We discussed in our meetings the expectation that the Bank of Japan (BOJ) is likely to keep its official policy interest rate at -0.10% for the foreseeable future, as it has since 1/29/16, while the Governing Council of the European Central Bank (ECB) is likely to lower its official deposit rate, currently -0.40%, deeper into negative territory at its 9/12 meeting (Fig. 1). The ECB is widely expected to resume quantitative easing at that meeting as well (Fig. 2).

Such expectations have driven the 10-year German government bond yield down to -0.70% on Monday from 0.24% at the start of this year. At 1.50% on Friday, the 10-year US Treasury bond yield is literally outstanding compared to the comparable yields available overseas: UK (0.34%), Japan (-0.27), Sweden (-0.34), France (-0.40), Germany (-0.70) (Fig. 3). The negative-interest-rate policies (NIRPs) of the ECB and BOJ are increasing the amount of negative-interest-rate bonds (NIRBs) around the world.

(2) Dividend & earnings yields stand out. The rationale for remaining bullish on US stocks seems to be shifting from TINA (there is no alternative) and FOMO (fear of missing out) to FONIR (fear of negative interest rates). These fears are inherently bullish for stocks and continue to overcome the bearish fear that an inverted yield curve is predicting an impending recession, i.e., FOIYC (fear of inverted yield curve).

A few of the accounts with whom I met recently noted that the 10-year US Treasury bond yield at 1.50% is below the S&P 500 dividend yield, at 1.90% during Q2-2019 (Fig. 4). That is one very good reason why they remain mostly fully invested in the stock market. I observed that the forward earnings yield of the S&P 500, at 6.06% during August, is even more outstanding compared to the bond yield (Fig. 5).

(3) Performance derby. The 119bps drop in the US bond yield since the beginning of the year certainly has benefited dividend-yielding stocks. The S&P 500 sectors that tend to have lots of dividend-paying companies have outperformed those that tend to have fewer of them: Information Technology (28.0% ytd), Real Estate (26.0), Consumer Discretionary (20.3), Communication Services (20.0), Consumer Staples (19.0), Utilities (17.6), Industrials (17.4), S&P 500 (16.7), Financials (12.6), Materials (11.9), Health Care (4.6), and Energy (-0.5) (Fig. 6).

FONIR should continue to benefit dividend-yielding stocks. Their high valuation multiples reflect investors’ willingness to pay up for these stocks, as evidenced by the relatively high forward P/Es of the S&P 500 sectors with lots of dividend payers: Real Estate (44.0), Consumer Discretionary (21.2), Information Technology (19.6), Consumer Staples (19.6), Utilities (19.4), Communication Services (17.4), Materials (16.9), S&P 500 (16.8), Industrials (15.4), Health Care (14.8), Energy (14.7), and Financials (11.4) (Fig. 7).

(4) Real yields. During July, the US bond yield averaged 2.05%, while the CPI inflation rate was 1.80%. So the inflation-adjusted bond yield was close to zero, at 0.25% (Fig. 8). During August, the bond yield fell below the inflation rate. In other words, in real terms, bond yields are entering negative territory. Meanwhile, the real earnings yield of the S&P 500, using reported earnings, remained solidly in positive territory during Q2-2019, at 3.02% (Fig. 9). The real forward earnings yield of the S&P 500 was 4.03% during July (Fig. 10).