Demography is destiny. If so, then the future will be challenging in many countries around the world where fertility rates have dropped below the replacement rate. At the same time, people are living longer. So dependency ratios--the number of retirees divided by the number of earners--are destined to soar.
Why have fertility rates fallen around the world? There are a few plausible explanations. One of them stands out, in my opinion: Socialism may breed infertility! In the past, people relied on their children to support them in their old age. Your children were your old-age insurance policy. Over the past few decades, people have come to depend increasingly on social security provided by their governments. So they are having fewer kids.
That’s fine as long as the ratio of retirees to workers isn't so high that the burden of supporting our senior citizens crushes any incentive to work resulting from excessively high tax rates. The cost of increasingly generous and excessive entitlements has been soaring relative to taxable earned incomes even before dependency ratios are set to rise in many countries. Governments have chosen to borrow to finance social security and other entitlements, to avoid burdening workers with the extremely high tax rates that are necessary to balance entitlement-bloated budgets.
Median ages are highest in advanced economies with large social welfare states. Among the 45 major countries, Japan has the highest median age (44.7), while the Philippines has the lowest (22.2). Advanced economies tend to have higher median ages than emerging ones because they provide more social welfare, which boosts longevity and depresses fertility.
Bond markets may be starting to shut down for countries that have accumulated too much debt. That’s creating a Debt Trap for debt-challenged governments. If they slash their spending and raise their tax rates, economic growth will tend to slow. If tax revenues fall faster than spending, their budget deficits will widen. There has recently been an outcry about the hopelessness of such “austerian” policies that perversely lead to higher, rather than lower, debt-to-GDP ratios.
The demographic reality is that people around the world are living into their 80s and 90s. Some of them believe that they are entitled to retire in their late 50s and early 60s even though they are living longer. Yet, they didn’t have enough children to support them either directly (out-of-pocket) or indirectly (through taxation). Instead, they expect that their governments will support them. So governments have had to borrow more to fund retirement benefits. That debt is mounting fast and will be a great burden for our children. The result can only be described as the Theft of Generations.
Today's Morning Briefing: Demography Is Destiny. (1) Volatility is back. (2) Spain gets cut-rate loan as its yield soars to record high. (3) Sentiment is still quite bearish. (4) Merkel seeking to avoid bigger “disasters.” (5) FSMI is down, but it should be up soon. (6) “Live long and prosper” doesn’t work without more kids. (7) Socialism breeds infertility. (8) A labor shortage in China. (9) Europe may be demographically doomed. (10) From Baby Boom to Senior Boom in America. (11) The Theft of Generations. (More for subscribers.)